Publications

  • Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes
    • The International Diabetes Federation has dedicated 14th Nov. as World Diabetes Day globally. Several activities are planned and steps are taken to raise awareness in the community. To mark this occasion, we present an infographic which highlights the research, cause, diagnosis and management of a new identified form of diabetes – ‘TYPE 3c (PANCREATOGENIC) DIABETES’. Type 3c diabetes starts with the impairment of the pancreas and thus is called Pancreatogenic diabetes.  For more, please go through our infographic.
  • Nanotechnology to Treat Haemophilia
    • Patients with bleeding disorders go through the exhaustive process of multiple injections and transfusions. They also have to bear complications with continuous needle based drug administration. The advancement of nanotechnology brings a positive breakthrough in the form of an oral dose of nanomedicine. This kind of drug delivery may bring less painful, inexpensive, and a complaint form of treatment than the conventional infusions and transfusions.

      This Infographic highlights the research of Nanomedicine as a novel therapy, its mechanism of action, and advantages for the treatment of Haemophilia.
  • Patient Chart Audit
    • A Patient Chart Audit is a part of retrospective assessments that unravel the potential of health care data. It evaluates a product’s prescription choices and patterns of treatment algorithms to understand the effectiveness of the care given.
  • Prophylaxis in Haemophilia
    • Prophylaxis is the regular infusion of clotting factor concentrates to prevent bleeding. Maintaining minimum factor levels around 1% with regular infusions of clotting factor concentrates reduces the risk of bleeding and prevents joint damage. This infographic outlines the types, benefits, determinants, barriers, and challenges of prophylaxis.
  • Fibrinogen (Factor I) Deficiency
    • Fibrinogen (Factor I) is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in the blood coagulation process. Factor I deficiency is an umbrella term for several related disorders known as congenital fibrinogen defects. These describe a range of inherited conditions characterized by either absence of, very low levels of or dysfunctional fibrinogen. These may result in hemorrhagic events (e.g. surgery/trauma-associated bleeding and, less commonly, spontaneous bleeding) or, occasionally, thrombotic events. This infographic illustrates the diagnosis, types of fibrinogen deficiencies, treatment, prevention, and vaccination.
  • Bleeding Disorders in Women
    • Bleeding disorders affect males as well as females. Many healthcare providers are unaware of the prevalence of bleeding disorders among females, and believe it occurs only in males. However, women being carriers, can also be affected by different bleeding disorders like von Willebrand disease (vWD), platelet defects, Haemophilia A, B or C, and other rare clotting deficiencies, and disorders of the Fibrinolytic system. Women not only present early in their life with a bleeding disorder, they also have other gynecologic manifestations due to these disorders. Women manifest bleeding disorders as they experience more bleeding challenges in their lifetime, like menstrual cycles, and during and after childbirth. While the manifestations of bleeding are not unique to women with bleeding disorders, they are more severe. Menorrhagia leads to increased pain during menstruation, chronic anemia, hospitalizations, the need for blood transfusions, limitations in daily activities, time lost from work and school, and reduced quality of life. Pregnancy among such women can be life threatening for them and their newborn. There is a need to understand various bleeding disorders affecting women, and their common signs and symptoms for better treatment opportunities and a healthier life.
  • Neonatal Haemophilia Diagnosis and Management
    • Haemophilia in neonates presents a significant number of challenges in terms of both diagnosis and management. These challenges reflect features unique to this age group. In the presence of a family history of Haemophilia, optimal management is possible. Additional problems arise where family history is absent or has not been adequately elucidated; in which case the diagnosis of Haemophilia in the neonate might be unsuspected. Diagnostic difficulties may arise due to failure to recognize the presence of abnormal bleeding. This infographic illustrates identification of infants with Haemophilia along with diagnosis and management which help overcome this potential complication in newborns.
  • Factor XIII Deficiency: A Rare Disease
    • Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor deficiency is a rare, genetic bleeding disorder. Individuals with Factor XIII deficiency are able to form blood clots, but these clots are unstable and often break down, resulting in prolonged, uncontrolled bleeding episodes.
  • Gene Therapy in Haemophilia A
    • Haemophilia A is an X-chromosome linked recessive bleeding disorder causing a deficiency in Factor VIII (FVIII). It occurs in 1 in 5,000 males. Haemophilia is treated with prophylaxis, management of bleeding episodes, and VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. The cloning of FVIII and advances in molecular technologies have raised the possibility of a cure for Haemophilia. Gene therapy is one such conceived cure. This infographic outlines the advantages, disadvantages and the process of Gene therapy.
  • Novel Therapy Monoclonal Antibody (mAb) for Haemophilia
    • Haemophilia is a genetic disease caused by mutation of one of the genes for coagulation proteins. Over the past several decades, factor replacement therapy has reduced the morbidity and mortality of Haemophilia through reduction in the frequency of bleeding episodes and improvement in the quality of life. But with the frequency of infusions, chances of adherence is always a questions and also the associated risk of contamination and thrombosis. Thus, there is a need for improved factor administration and novel therapies.

      This Infographic highlights the research of Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb) as novel therapy, its mechanism of action and advantages over current therapy.

  • A Snapshot of von Willebrand Disease
    • Bleeding disorders have become an increasing burden worldwide and von Willebrand disease (vWD) is one such prominent bleeding disorder. It is a genetic disorder caused by the missing or defective von Willebrand factor (vWF), which plays a vital role in the clotting process. Patients with vWD experience frequent bleeds during trauma, invasive procedures, and menorrhagia, and severe hemorrhaging after childbirth. The treatment for vWD depends on the diagnosis and severity. Hence, it is vital to create awareness among people and healthcare professionals for prompt diagnosis and timely interventions. Additionally, awareness aids the adoption of preventive measures to avoid excessive bleeds occurring due to trauma. This infographic summarizes the essential facts on vWD as an initiative to increase awareness and aid patient access to care.
  • Development of Haemophilia inhibitors - A serious and costly treatment complication
    • Haemophilia is an inherited/genetic bleeding disorder where the blood does not clot properly because of the low levels or absence of either clotting factor VIII (Haemophilia A) or factor IX (Haemophilia B). Clotting factor concentrates (“factor”) are used to treat Haemophilia. These improve blood clotting and are used to achieve Haemostasis or prevent bleeding episodes. Developing inhibitory antibodies are the most serious and costly complication in treating Haemophilia because treating episodes of bleeding becomes less effective. This fact sheet showcases the Haemophilia inhibitors, types of inhibitors, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, action steps and future research in the domain.
  • The Challenges and Recommendations for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Care in India: A Review
    • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a primary concern in India affecting approximately five million women each year. Existing literature indicate that prediabetes and diabetes affect approximately six million births in India alone, of which 90% are due to GDM. Studies reveal that there is no consensus among physicians and health-care providers in India regarding management of GDM prepartum and postpartum despite available guidelines.

      Authors: Suman Morampudi, Gayathri Balasubramanian, Arun Gowda, Behsad Zomorodi and Anand Shanthanagowd Patil

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  • RWE: Scientific tool to achieve value based pricing and reimbursement
    • Healthcare providers and payers expect better outcomes & greater value than current standards of care. Real-world evidence is becoming an increasingly integral element for healthcare decision-makers. Advances in technology help us to collect, analyse, share, and manage large data sets in real time at a relatively low cost. The increased use of modern technologies in the healthcare sector has changed the ways in which real world data is collected, stored and managed.

      This infographic illustrates the definition, benefits, challenges, impact on pharma business model and steps for an economic evaluation using real world data.
  • Good practices in the conduct of a patient registry
    • A patient registry is defined as “a structured system that practices observational study methods to collect constant data (clinical and other) to evaluate detailed outcomes for a population defined by a particular disease, condition or exposure, and that serve one or more predetermined scientific, clinical, or policy purposes”. The data derived from patient registries can provide a real-world view of clinical practice, patient outcomes, safety, and comparative effectiveness. This article highlights the good practices that are essential to the design and conduct of patient registries. To provide a brief insight on the good practices to conduct patient registries. The key aspects to be considered when conducting a registry are accessibility, set up of the right research questions and maintaining the confidentiality and transparency of patient data. A patient registry must be conducted without affecting the ethical rights of the patients.

      Authors: Manu Somanath, Anup Nair, Rituraj Mohanty, Uttam Barick, Arun Gowda and Anand Patil

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  • Influence of real world data in the pharmaceutical industry
    • Real-world evidence (RWE) research is essential for biopharmaceutical product development and commercialization. The pharmaceutical industry essentially depends on the information on a product’s real-world effectiveness and safety data. This information impacts the ensuing reimbursement and utilization of new products. Regulators, public and private payers, and prescribers, are all keen to know the impact of a new product in a real-world setting. The viewpoint for RWE generation is promising, with the potential to improve health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of new health technologies. The demand for RWE is increasing and is unlikely to subside as health care decision-makers become gradually aware of what it offers.

      Authors: 
      Manu Somanath, Sakshi Mittal, Rituraj Mohanty, Arun Gowda, Anand Patil and Behsad Zomorodi


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  • Medical Tourism in India
    • Medical tourism refers to the industry in which people from across the globe travel to other countries to get medical, dental and surgical care, and at the same time, visit the local attractions of that country. India is one of the best options available to people across the globe.

      This infographic illustrates the definition, Cost comparison, Number of medical tourists and revenue generated, challenges and facts of Medical tourism in India.
  • Pharma and Social Media
    • The pharmaceutical industry is predominantly using social media as a key platform to communicate with multiple stakeholders.

      People are sharing 2 billion tweets, 30 billion comments on Facebook every month.

      20% of Facebook and Twitter user-generated content mentions a specific drug or disease.

      530% is the number of average tweets that have gone up in the pharma industry since 2013.

      300% is the number of increased Twitter followers since 2013.

      This info-graphic illustrates the use of social media, its benefits and impacts to the stakeholders in pharma industry.

  • Vaccines
    • A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. The science of vaccine evolved across the globe in late 19th century and India was amongst a few countries to have been involved in these efforts. Vaccines have successfully eliminated smallpox and polio from India; brought measles to an all-time low; and reduced tetanus by an estimated 95% over the past three decades. The incidence of global deaths among children under-five has reduced by more than half, from an estimated 12.6 million deaths in 1990 to 6.3 million deaths in 2013. The population coverage of many childhood vaccines has risen sharply in recent years.
  • Financial challenges in immunization and role of Health technology Assessment as a tool for assessing new vaccines in developing countries
    • Despite the advances in vaccine development, vaccine preventable diseases still add to the burden of childhood morbidity and mortality across the globe, particularly in developing countries. One of the major barriers preventing the access to sophisticated vaccines is the high vaccine price, the same factor that is preventing their implementation in developing countries with limited resources and funds. So, it is imperative that financial breaches and funding resources for the future are stringently appraised to strengthen immunization programs and expedite financial sustainability. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) presents an inventive and efficient approach by facilitating decision makers with a valid tool to improvise the allocation of limited resources in immunization programs. Hence, in this article we have attempted to address and suggest measures that can be implemented on a collaborative basis to mitigate the financial challenges faced in immunization programs in developing nations. The article also explores the potential and advantages of HTA as a tool for introducing new vaccines as part of immunization programs in developing countries.

      Authors: Mahafroz Khatib, Rituraj Mohanty, Arun Gowda, Gayathri Balasubramanian.

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  • Haemophilia: A Global Challenge
    • On World Haemophilia Day (April 17th), phamax aims at increasing awareness about this disease amongst healthcare professionals.

      Haemophilia, previously also called as the royal disease, is a rare disorder that impairs the clotting ability of blood. There are two types of Haemophilia: type A (deficiency of clotting factor VIII) and type B (deficiency of clotting factor IX). Patients with severe Haemophilia have spontaneous or excessive bleeding into joints and muscles that significantly impact the quality of life.

      Vast research has been conducted to develop suitable therapies for haemophilia. Currently available treatment help replace the clotting factor thats missing or low. Sometimes, lifelong clotting factor infusions are required. Prophylactic treatment may also decrease the risk of bleeding episodes. However, some individuals develop antibodies against the clotting factors over time, called “inhibitors”. This increases the complications and cost of therapy further. To develop a cure or a cost-effective, efficacious therapy for Haemophilia, it is imperative to identify the challenges associated with the same.

      This infographic provides a global picture of Haemophilia, gives an insight into the challenges to achieve the theme of World Haemophilia Day 2016, i.e. Treatment for all is the vision of all, and covers some important and unique facts about this disease.
  • Novel Devices for Cardiovascular Conditions
    • Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders that affect the heart and blood vessels. An estimated 17.5 million people succumbed to CVDs in 2012 (31% of all global deaths). Medical devices are now an integral part of modern care. Physicians can now diagnose and treat diseases more effectively, with relevant contributions to health and the quality of life. Cardiovascular implants are essential constituents of modern medicine and will gain importance with the demographic changes towards a society of increasing age-related morbidity.
  • How Rare are Rare Diseases?
    • EURORDIS defines a disease with a prevalence of no more than five in 10,000 people as rare. Over 7000 rare diseases are officially identified and several remain undiscovered.

      Globally, more than 300 million individuals suffer from a rare disease in contras to the term “rare”, posing a question “How rare are rare diseases?”.

      To answer the query and raise awareness on this issue, FSRC’s infographic illustrates the assessed faction of people with the most common rare diseases worldwide (using the estimated prevalence in Europe).
  • Depression Among Corporate Employees in India
    • Depression is a common mental disorder, characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, feelings of tiredness, and poor concentration.

      As per the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey initiative reported that India has the second highest rate of major depression in the world after China. 42.5 percent of corporate employees suffer from this lifestyle disease. The ratio of females to males suffering from depression is 2:1. The rate of emotional problems such as anxiety and depression has increased by 45 -50% in the last eight years, according to an ASSOCHAM recent study.

      This Infographic illustrates the definition, causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention and prevalence among corporate employees in India.
  • Rare Diseases In India
    • A rare disease/orphan disease is one that affects a small percentage of a population. Most are genetic, and hence affect throughout the lifetime. About 30% of children with rare diseases succumb before their fifth birthday.

      In India, an estimated seven crore are afflicted with some or other form of rare/genetic disorders. According to the foundation for research on rare disease and disorders, in India, 30 - 40 lakh people are affected by one of the existing 7000 rare/genetic diseases. Around 80% of these cases are attributed to genetic causes triggered by high rates of consanguineous marriages.

      This Infographic illustrates the definition, prevalence, causes, symptoms and treatment of rare diseases.
  • Obesity - Baleful to Healthy Life
    • Worldwide rise in prevalence of obesity is more than double from 1980 to 2014. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in India in the 21st century, with morbid obesity affecting 5% of the countrys population. This infographic is an illustration of the causes, prevalence and complications of obesity; globally and in India.
  • The Rising Cancer Threat in India (2007-2011)
    • Cancer is a disease involving abnormal cell growth. It has become a major threat to the human community globally. In India, as per the last population census data, the rate of mortality due to cancer was alarmingly high, with about 8,06,000 existing cases discovered at the end of the last century. Cancer is the second most common disease in India, responsible for maximum mortality with about 0.3 million deaths per year. This infographic focuses on the status of cancer in India.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Facts and Myths in India
    • Diabetes is a rampant public health threat and soon to become leading fatal ailment worldwide. It is estimated that 61.3 million people in the age group of 20 - 79 years live with diabetes in India. As per statistics revealed by the World Health Organization (WHO), diabetes will become the seventh leading cause of death by the year 2030. India hosts the largest diabetic population in the world and thus is the diabetes capital of the world. This infographic illustrates the facts and myths related to diabetes mellitus in India.
  • Knowledge, attitude and practices concerning Hepatitis B infection, among healthcare workers in Bantama, Ghana: a cross sectional study
    • Background: Hepatitis B is a serious, global, public health problem that gives rise to hepatocellular carcinoma / liver cancer with a mortality rate of about 600000 people, worldwide. Despite increasing prevalence of HBV and health care workers (HCWs) being at high risk for HBV, there is paucity of information on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) concerning HBV among HCWs, especially among developing countries like Ghana. Improved HBV related knowledge is imperative for developing an informed positive environment which can import, support and maintain HVB control good practices.

      Methods: This quantitative cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate KAP of HCWs was undertaken amongst 175 HCWs of Suntreso Government Hospital, Ghana. KAP regarding HBV were assessed using a standardized structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics for patients’ demographic characteristics and mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice of HCWs were applied. To establish association between study variables, Kruskal Wallis test and to assess the association between the KAP scores, Spearman’s rho correlation were used. 

      Results: Mean scores for KAP were 13.691±2.81, 6.685±2.28 and 2.23±1.19 respectively. Age, occupation and experience were significantly associated with mean knowledge scores (p< 0.01), knowledge-practice (r = 0.388, p < 0.01) and attitude-practice (r = 0.458, p < 0.01). 

      Conclusions: The study highlighted non-optimal KAP with regards to several aspects of HBV. Hence, there arises a need for policy guidelines along with extensive health education campaigns to manage all aspects of KAP of HCWs regarding HBV.  Keywords: Hepatitis-B, KAP, Ghana, Healthcare workers

      Authors: Mary Y. Afihene, Babatunde M. Duduyemi , Hannah-Lisa A-Tetteh , Mahafroz Khatib

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  • Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions
    • Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. 
      Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

      Authors: Uttam Kumar Barick, Daniel Schwarz, Behsad Zomorodi, Arun Gowda, Rituraj Mohanty, Martin Komenda

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  • Optimal Ecrf Design, User Friendly Interface And Proper Training: Quintessential For High Quality Data In Real World Evidence (RWE) Studies
    • The success of a Real World Evidence (RWE) study lies in collecting and processing high quality data. Data in RWE study can be collected in a paper format as in a Case Report Form (CRF) or electronically in the format of electronic Case Report Form (eCRF). For a multi-country/multi-centric study, eCRF can offer advantages over the conventional paper CRF for collection of data. An approach which is a combination of optimal eCRF design, user friendly interface and proper training can facilitate in collection of high quality data. The article highlights the significance of optimal eCRF design, user friendly interface and proper training in RWE studies. Implementation of EDC system with eCRF can be advantageous for a multi-country/multi-centric RWE studies, as it facilities real time monitoring, which can yield adequate data of high quality. Implementation of eCRF can be cost and time effective.

      Authors: Rituraj Mohanty, Arun Gowda, Anup Nair, Anil Sharma, Uttam Barick

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  • Non Hodgkins Lymphoma in India
    • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is the 11th most common cause of cancer incidence. It is most frequent in high income countries, with rates more than twice those of middle to low income countries. This Info-graphic focuses on the NHL in  India. It illustrates the risk factors, epidemiology, types of treatment and leading 5 cities of cancer in India.
  • Diabetes in South East Asia - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand
    • The growing diabetes epidemic worldwide have potentially devastating effects on the developing healthcare systems and economies, both in terms of direct health care costs and loss of working time and disability. This Info-graphic focuses on the 5 South East Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand). It illustrates the prevalence, burden of diabetes, pharmaceutical and healthcare market size in these 5 countries.
  • Healthcare cost and access to care for viral hepatitis in Ethiopia
    • Introduction: Viral hepatitis is an emerging threat. The economic impact of these infections is immense since liver cancer has a high fatality rate in Africa and usually affects economically productive age groups. However, little is known of the state of healthcare cost and access to care for such infections in the region (and especially in Ethiopia).

      Objective and Study design: the present study investigated the current status of healthcare access in Ethiopia for patients with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) through expert surveys using a pre-defined questionnaire.

      Principal findings: The survey results showed a heavy burden of HBV and HCV in Ethiopia, mostly affecting the economically productive age group in the middle and lower economic classes. Unfortunately, the diagnosis rates for both HBV and HCV cases are very low. Moreover, the treatment rates are also low due lack of access and affordability. There is no well-established health insurance system in Ethiopia. The cost of healthcare is mainly borne out-of-pocket by patients.

      Conclusions: There is a need to increase hepatitis awareness among the general public and healthcare workers. Subsidies for diagnosis and treatment are also urgently needed. Vaccination needs to be extended to at-risk populations.

      Authors: Abate Bane, Aravind Patil, and Mahafroz Khatib

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  • Diabetes in North Africa - Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco
    • Diabetes is a recognized threat to public health. Globally, there are 382 million people living with this disease. There has been an increase in people with diabetes in the developing markets, as living standards improve, leading to a lethal combination of population growth, aging, urbanization, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Africa is a continent with a lot of potential where the pharmaceutical spending is expected to reach USD 30 billion by 2016. This info-graphic focuses on the 3 emerging markets in North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco). It illustrates the burden of diabetes and the diabetes market in Africa.

  • The patient registry: a high-impact tool for real world evidence
    • Today, data is ubiquitous across domains, from sales data to R&D, but improved tools and methodologies are needed to fully exploit these data. Credible evidence requires meticulous planning to eliminate confounding variables and include all relevant parameters. Of course, results obtained in highly controlled conditions are important for regulatory approvals, but performance indicators in the real world will guarantee continued product success. Indeed, the ability to generate real-world evidence is a critical differentiator: Real-world conditions are varied, unpredictable, and unregulated and demand very robust tools for gathering evidence. Patient registries stand tall among the various tools that could deliver the desired end results with acceptable accuracy. This article provides an overview of registries (implementation, approach, and barriers) from the perspectives of the various stakeholders in healthcare.

      Author: Barick Uttam, Mohanty Rituraj, Gowda Arun

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  • Prevalence of HBV and HIV among students and staff at the University of Jos, Nigeria: Results from a medical outreach screening program
    • Human immunodeficiency (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are both of great concern in Nigeria. This study was conducted to understand the HIV and HBV prevalence among students and staff at the University of Jos (Jos, Nigeria) through a medical outreach program in which free screening was offered to voluntary participants at the university. Serum samples from 180 individuals were assayed for the presence of HBV surface antigen, HIV-1 p24 antigen, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. HIV prevalence was 3.88% and HBV prevalence was 7.22%. In sum, the prevalence of HBV and HIV among young Nigerian adults reflects the need for establishment of clear health policy for this risk group.

      Authors:
      Obekpa Solomon, Khatib Mahafroz, Mbwas Mashor, Francis Arome, Das Neha

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  • Leveraging Ubiquitous and Novel Technologies as Enablers to Address Africa’s Health Challenges
    • The last decade has witnessed massive growth in the African economy, accompanied by an unprecedented uptake of novel communications technologies across the five sub-regions. At the same time, the burden of various diseases – both communicable and non-communicable – is also escalating. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze and highlight uncommon applications of novel technologies toward healthcare delivery in Africa. To this end, we conducted secondary research on the main health concerns and interviewed domain experts in five countries (representing the five sub-regions), namely, Egypt, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa. We found that mobile phones and related advanced technologies are already enabling a multitude of services, including health-worker capacity building, medicine and medical equipment delivery, data collection and disease surveillance, emergency medical response, and health promotion and disease prevention. However, the general approach employed for deploying these technologies does raise some concerns, particularly regarding data privacy. Finally, we find that the healthcare stakeholders (pharmaceutical companies, governments, patients, physicians, etc.) must cooperate in order to take advantage of these low-cost technological breakthroughs for themselves and, more importantly, for the health of the patients.

      Authors: Arun Gowda and Marius O. Chabi

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  • HIV/AIDS vs. Chronic Viral Hepatitis in Africa- A Tale of Two Infections’. This Info-graphic Compares Chronic Viral Hepatitis and HIV in Africa
    • This infographic contrasts the ongoing significant effort expended on HIV/AIDS with the relative inaction on diseases such as hepatitis B and C, which closely compete with HIV/AIDS in terms of disease burden. In fact, hepatitis B and C currently outrival HIVs burden and can be expected to soon be also responsible for more cases than HIV, as shown by recent data. Despite this trend, scientific interest, drug development, epidemiology, advocacy, and public/private expenditure toward hepatitis B and C are severely wanting when they exist at all. As a result, it is urgent for national and global health actors to reconsider their priorities and allocate more attention to viral hepatitis in general and hepatitis B and C in particular.
  • Hepatitis awareness among the general public in Cameroon: A survey study
    • Introduction: Viral hepatitis affects millions of people around the globe. The burden of disease is significantly higher in developing countries such as those in Africa. Lack of awareness coupled with inadequate information about the disease amongst general public is the major reason for the spread of infection. Awareness of the disease can help in building advocacy and improving access to care. In order to assess the awareness levels of hepatitis among general public in Cameroon, we designed and conducted a cross-sectional study.

      Materials and Methods: The objective of the study was to assess the awareness of hepatitis in a set population of Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a small population in Cameroon. A total of 88 people aged between 18 to 70 years participated in the survey. 

      Results: On a scale of 0 to 10 the average awareness level of the survey respondents was 5.38. Although the results indicated that the survey participants had some knowledge about hepatitis, it was observed that there was lack of awareness in some key areas of the disease such as modes of transmission and vaccination. There is a need for initiatives at a population level to increase the awareness about viral hepatitis, modes of transmission, treatment and prevention in Cameroon.

      Authors: Aravind Patil, Fogue Foguito, Gayathri Balasubramanian, Ngalamou Flore, Endele Paul Patrick, and Arun Gowda

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  • Prevalence of HBV and HCV in Chile
    • The prevalence rate (about 1% of the population) of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Chile is very low. This info-graphic illustrates the prevalence of HBV and HCV in the general population and risk groups in Chile.
  • Three killer diseases: Tuberculosis, HIV and Malaria
    • This info-graphic illustrates the prevalence, incidence, and mortality of diseases that were identified as specific targets in the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. The annualized rates of change in incidence and death are also presented here both global and specific to India.
  • HCV in Iraq
    • This info-graphic illustrates the prevalence of HCV in Iraq where data on HCV is scarce. It depicts the burden of HCV in the general population and risk groups; and the current status of national policies on HCV for access to care in Iraq.
  • HCV in North African Countries
    • As per WHO, Africa has the highest HCV prevalence. Despite its high prevalence and highly infectious nature, HCV remains under-diagnosed and under-reported in Africa. This info-graphic highlights the prevalence of HCV in North African countries.
  • HCV in Cameroon
    • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a viral pandemic and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. Africa has the highest WHO estimated regional HCV prevalence (5.3%). In Africa, the highest prevalence of HCV is in Egypt (17.5%) followed by Cameroon (13.8%). This info-graphics highlights the prevalence and existing policies of Hepatitis C in Cameroon.
  • HCV in Jordan
    • The WHO has identified Hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a global public-health issue. About 3% of the world population i.e. nearly 170 million people are infected with chronic HCV. The prevalence of HCV among various groups and the common risk factors in Jordan have been pictorially represented. Outlined also, are the existing national policies, public funds and essential medicines for HCV in this info-graphic.
  • Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Blood Donors in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
    • The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections that spread through blood donations are significant in Nigeria and must be addressed on priority basis. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among voluntary blood donors in Nigeria, a retrospective study of data from January 2010 to April 2013 in the blood bank of Bishop Murray Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria was conducted. Out of 1256 samples of voluntary blood donors, HBV prevalence among blood donors in Makurdi was found to be 8.12% while HCV prevalence was 4.77%. This publication is a FSRC initiative to increase awareness for viral hepatitis along with our specialist network – Dendron.

      Authors:- Obekpa Solomon, Gowda Arun, Malu A. O., Das Neha, Khatib Mahafroz, Ajanya Ojima, Idoko Ojonugwa

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  • Can We Eradicate Malaria?
    • Malaria is a major public health concern affecting countries relatively close to the Equator and responsible for thousands of deaths annually, mainly in Africa. This infographic sourced from the potential resistance to Artemisinin recently found along the Thailand and Myanmar border, dwells into the global health community’s continued battle to eradicate malaria. It presents the disease’s epidemiological characteristics and the path followed to offset the most powerful anti-malarial drug as of today. How many years will Artemisinin remain the panacea?
  • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in the Arabian Peninsula: Prevalence and Policies
    • This infographic illustrates the prevalence of HCV amongst different populations in the countries of Arabian Peninsula. It also enlists the national policies for access to care.
  • Hepatitis awareness among students of a women’s college in Bangalore city, India
    • Recent studies indicate that the global incidence of hepatitis is rising and that this increase is occurring faster in populations of developing nations. Inappropriate, high-risk health behaviour, especially in young adults, is one of the leading factors for contracting viral hepatitis. This prevailing situation supported by data suggesting that health behaviour may be influenced by the level of awareness about hepatitis, encouraged us to design a cross-sectional study to assess the viral hepatitis knowledge of young college going students at Bangalore. 

      To assess the awareness regarding hepatitis among the young college girls of a Bangalore city women`s college, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students aged between 18 to 25 years. 

      A total of 128 responses were received during the survey. Overall on a scale of 0 (being low awareness) to 10 (being complete awareness), the awareness level of respondents was 6.7. Read the publication online by clicking the link. 

      Authors: Arun Gowda, B. Ramakrishna Goud, Aravind Patil, Mahafroz Khatib

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  • Hepatitis C in Turkey
    • In this info-graphic, we try to depict the prevalence of HCV in general population as well as risk groups, the common risk factors of hepatitis C and the status of national policies for access to care in Turkey.
  • Hepatitis in India
    • The types of Hepatitis viruses, their mode of transmission and the overview of the global and national scenario of hepatitis B and C infections are graphically represented in this info-graphic. The info-graphic spreads awareness of the disease propagating the “This is Hepatitis. Know it. Confront it…” message across borders in India.

  • Global Snapshot of HCV Prevalence and Genotype Distribution
    • This Info-graphic outlines the prevalence of HCV infection worldwide and the genotype distribution of HCV.

  • Therapy of Hepatitis C: Clinical Application and Drug Development
    • This info-graphic illustrates the population at risk of getting infected with HCV such as health care workers, adults in the age group of 15-24 and drug users. It also highlights the mobile applications available for medical experts and various therapeutic advancements for the prevention and control of Hepatitis C.

  • Burden of Viral Hepatitis
    • This info-graphic provides a pictorial illustration of the current burden of viral hepatitis (HBV and HCV). The infographic details modes of transmission of hepatitis viruses and preventive measures which can be practiced to check the spread of HBV and HCV.